In a zone of many east boundary currents the main factor defining distribution of temperature, salinity and chemical characteristics of water to surfaces is the upwelling. The upwelling has important biological value as thanks to it deep waters take out nutrients in the top sheets of water and that promote increase in efficiency of a phytoplankton. Upwelling zones it is biological the most productive regions of the world.
Formation of ice considerably reduces interaction of the ocean with the atmosphere, detaining distribution of convection to depth of the ocean. Transfer of heat has to be carried out already through ice - very bad conductor of heat.
Usually durability of sea ice makes one third of durability of fresh-water ice of the same thickness. However old sea ice (with very low salinity) or the ice formed at a temperature is lower than a point of crystallization of chloride sodium, does not concede on durability to fresh-water ices.
Imagining in the general plan circulation of oceanic waters in the form of system of extensive anti-cyclonic whirlwinds, it should be noted that the currents in the sum forming circulations very strongly differ in their different sites. The western boundary currents, such as Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, - narrow, fast, deep streams with quite well expressed borders. The currents directed to the equator on other side of oceanic pools, such as Californian, Peruvian and Bengalese, on the contrary, wide, low and superficial flows with indistinct borders, some researchers even consider that these lines are sense to draw on moristy side of currents of this kind.
In distribution of salinity of a surface water the zonality caused first of all by a ratio of the dropping-out atmospheric precipitation and evaporations is traced. The drain of river waters and the thawing icebergs reduce salinity. In priekvatorialny latitudes where rainfall drops out more, than evaporates, and the river drain, salinity of 34-35 per milles is great. In tropic latitudes there are not enough rainfall, but evaporation therefore salinity makes 37 per milles is great. In midlatitudes salinity is close to 35, and in subpolar - the smallest (32-33 since the amount of precipitation is more than evaporation here, the river drain, especially Siberian rivers is great, there are a lot of icebergs, mainly round Antarctica and Greenland.
Temperature of all mass of ocean water near 4gradusov Celsius. Oceans cold. Water in them gets warm only at the surface, and with depth it becomes colder. Only 8% of waters of the ocean are warmer the 10th hail., more than a half is colder the 3rd hail. With depth temperature changes unevenly.
In the southern hemisphere everything looks differently. Wide (300 miles) and deep (3000 m) Drake Strait - between South America and Antarctica - provides free water exchange between Atlantic and Silent oceans. Thanks to it the Antarctic circumpolar current directed on the East stretches to the bottom and at the settlement size of a consumption of water it appears the greatest current of the World Ocean.